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Mariann Schiller
Anna Gács
Contact hours
2x2 hours/week
4 credits

Short Description of the Course: 
This course gives an overview of the history of Hungarian cinema, presenting the most important films and the most important artists.
Using films as points of reference, questions of Hungarian history, society and culture will also be touched upon. 

Aim of the Course: 
Students get acquainted with some of the most outstanding feature films produced in Hungary. After a short introduction to the earliest years of filmmaking in Hungary, works produced during communism as well as more recent films made after the democratic transition will be screened and discussed.  
The course will also introduce the current trends in contemporary filmmaking that concentrate on presenting various aspects of the life of the poor in Hungary, with special attention to Roma and other ethnic minorities. Another trend of films presents typical or extraordinary stories from the present (e.g. how young people struggle to find their place in contemporary Hungarian society, etc.). During the course students get acquainted with the most important elements of cinematic language, film industry and filmmaking.

Method of Instruction: 
Students will be encouraged to collect experiences on their own and to prepare short accounts of films and filmmakers to be discussed in class.
Parts of films mentioned will be watched as illustrations during the discussions.
Guest speakers will be invited from various fields of filmmaking (directors, cinematographers, producers, etc.) to talk about the contemporary scene and to answer questions.
Screenings will be held of Hungarian films with English subtitles once a week. These sessions will be open to the whole AIT community.
Detailed Program and Class Schedule: (2x2 hours/week) 

Week 1
Introduction. The perception of film. Myth, dreams and reality on the screen. Film and history, film and society. The beginning. The first picture shows and the first studios in Hungary. Films and filmmakers during the Councils’ Republic in 1919. Film and propaganda. Hungarians in Hollywood. The first and the second generation of immigrants. How East Europeans built up Hollywood. Zukor and Fox, the founding fathers, Kertész, Korda, Pressburger, de Toth who made Hollywood and the British Film big. 
Film: My Twentieth Century (Ildikó Enyedi)
(Casablanca – Michael Curtiz)
(Reading: Zsolt Kézdi-Kovács: It's not enough to be Hungarian, you must be talented too. In: Hungarians in Film pp.6-7.)

Week 2
Hungarian cinema between the two World Wars. The long silence in the twenties. Talkies in the thirties and the early forties. The “white-telephone” movies. Light melodramas and comedies. Film noirs and femmes fatales in the forties. The Hungarian neorealism: People on the Alps. 
Film: Hyppolit, the Butler (István Székely)
(Car of Dreams - Béla Gaál; People on the Alps – István Szőts)
(Reading: Cunningham pp. 16-61 pp.)

Week 3
The Coalition Years. The division of the film studios among the political parties. A humanist masterpiece before the nationalization: Somewhere in Europe by Géza Radványi. The nationalization. The third generation of immigrants: István Szőts and Géza Radványi. Communist propaganda films in the fifties. 
Film: State Department Store (Viktor Gertler)
(Somewhere in Europe – Géza Radványi)
(Reading: Cunningham 61-80 pp.)

Week 4
Fear and Loathing in Budapest. The secret police and the show trials. A banned satire that made the system ridiculous: The Witness. Miklós Jancsó’s Trilogy on opression: The Round Up, Silence and Cry, The Red and the White).
Film: The Witness (Peter Bacsó)
(The Round Up – Miklós Jancsó)
(Reading: Cunningham: 110-113 pp, 114-115 pp)

Week 5 
After the revolution. The détente and the new cultural policy of the Kádár-regime. The swinging sixties in Europe and in Hungary. New forms, new styles, new waves. “Look back in Anger”. The language of flowers and metaphors. The ambiguity of past and presence, dreams and reality, memories and facts in the works of Károly Makk. 
Film: Love (Károly Makk)
(Another Way – Károly Makk) 
(Reading: Cunningham pp. 94-116)

Week 6
The young generation of filmmakers and moviegoers in the sixties. The new cinematic language. The fatherless generation. Facing the past and the heritage of parents in Szabo’s first Trilogy: Age of Daydreaming, Father, Love Film.
Film: Father (István Szabó)      
(Age of Daydreaming, Love Film – István Szabó; Current – István Gaál)
Reading: Susan Suleiman: “On Exile, Jewish Identity, and Filmmaking in Hungary: A Conversation with István Szabó” In: Special Issue 7 – Hungarian Cinema (February 2008)

Week 7
The children of the revolution. The second fatherless generation. The new lifestyle. Rock music, Coca Cola and blue jeans. The kids of Marx and the Coca Cola (Godard). 
Film: Time Stands Still (Péter Gothár)
(Dollybirds – Péter Tímár)
(Reading: Cunningham pp. 116-142, Beverly James: “Character Subjectivities in Films about the 1956 Hungarian Revolution”In: Special Issue 7 – Hungarian Cinema (February 2008)

Week 8
The lost illusions: 1968. The fall of the Prague Spring and the students’ revolt in Paris. The emerge of new conservatism. Censorship and “self-censorship” in the sixties and in the seventies. 
Film: Lost Illusions (Gyula Gazdag)
(The Whistling Cobblestone – Gyula Gazdag; Another Way – Károly Makk)
(Reading: Catherine Portuges: “A Conversation with Gyula Gazdag” In: Special Issue 7 – Hungarian Cinema (February 2008)

Week 9
After the shock of 68. What happened to the great generation? The seventies and the eighties. New tendencies: documentarism and experimentalism in the Béla Balázs Studio. 
Film: The Great Generation (Ferenc András – Géza Bereményi)
(American Torso – Gábor Bódy; A Priceless Day – Péter Gothár)
(Reading: Cunningham pp. 116-142)

Week 10
The political changes in 89/90. From paternalism to democracy. The second new wave of the Hungarian cinema. 
Film: Moszkva tér (Ferenc Török)

Week 11
The walls come down. 
Film: Bolshe Vita (Ibolya Fekete)
(God's Lantern – Miklós Jancsó; Chico – Ibolya Fekete)
(Reading: Cunningham pp. 146-147)

Week 12
The new generation of the XXI. Century. Escapism, new sensibility: Kornél Mundruczó, György Pálfi, Szabolcs Hajdu. The cinematic language of Béla Tarr. 
Film: Taxidermia (György Pálfi)
(Hukkle – György Pálfi; White Psalms, Bibliothéque Pascal – Szabolcs Hajdu; Delta - Kornél Mundruczó; Dealer – Benedek Fliegauf; Satantango – Béla Tarr)
(Reading: András Bálint Kovács: “The World According to Béla Tarr”, Ivan Sanders: Oversexed, Overstuffed, Over the Top: György Pálfi’s Taxidermia In: Special Issue 7 – Hungarian Cinema (February 2008)

Week 13
Roma and other ethnic minorities in the Hungarian cinema. From Cséplő Gyuri to Vespa.
Film: Vespa (Diana Groó)
(Cséplő Gyuri –Pál Schiffer)
(Reading: Cunningham pp. 181-182)

Week 14
“This is a men’s world”. Women, sex, gender on the screen from the fifties to the present. The films of Márta Mészáros and Ágnes Kocsis.
Film: Fresh Air (Ágnes Kocsis)
(Nine Month – Márta Mészáros; Adrienn Pál – Ágnes Kocsis)
Reading: Peter Hames: Ágnes Kocsis's Fresh Air (In: Special Issue 7 – Hungarian Cinema (February 2008)
(Films that will be mentioned and partly watched during the classes are in brackets.)

Suggested reading:
Cunningham, John: Hungarian Cinema from coffee house to multiplex, Wallflower Press, 2004
Petrie, Graham: History Must Answer to Men (Corvina, Budapest, 1978)
Gelencsér, Gábor ed.: Hungarians in Film, Filmesek a világban, Magyar Filmunió Budapest, 1996
Bazin, André: The Ontology of the Photographic Image, The Western or the American Film par excellence (in: What is Cinema Vol. I.-II. University of California Press, Berkeley, LA, London, 1971) Special Issue 7 – Hungarian Cinema (February 2008)


Catherine Portuges: “Contemporary Perspectives on Hungarian Cinema”

Susan Suleiman: “On Exile, Jewish Identity, and Filmmaking in Hungary: A Conversation with István Szabó
Catherine Portuges: “A Conversation with Gyula Gazdag

György Báron: “Dead Sea Scrolls: Hungarian Documentaries Before and After the Political Changes”
John Cunningham: “Jenő Janovics and Transylvanian Silent Cinema”
Kristian Feigelson: “The Labyrinth: A Strategy of Sensitive Experimentation, A Filmmaker of the Anonymous”
David Frey: “‘Why We Fight’ Hungarian Style: War, Civil War, and the Red Menace in Hungarian Wartime Feature Film”
Beverly James: “Character Subjectivities in Films about the 1956 Hungarian Revolution”
András Bálint Kovács: “The World According to Béla Tarr”

John Cunningham: Csaba Bollók’s Iska’s Journey (Iszka utazása), 2007
Peter Hames: Ágnes Kocsis's Fresh Air (Friss Levegö), 2006
Anikó Imre: Áron Gauder’s The District (Nyóckér!), 2004
Steve Jobbitt: Nimród Antal’s Kontroll (2003) — Subterranean Dreaming: Hungarian Fantasies of Integration and Redemption
Ivan Sanders: Tainted Art: On István Szabó's Taking Sides (2001)
Ivan Sanders: Oversexed, Overstuffed, Over the Top: György Pálfi’s Taxidermia (2006)

Grading Principles: 
Grading will be based on

  1. class participation and activity at the sessions
  2. three or four (depends on the number of students) short essays (3,000 characters) during the semester.
  3. final essay (15,000 characters) at the end of the semester.

Instructors' bio:

Mariann Schiller is a secondary school teacher and teacher trainer in one of the most prestigious grammar schools in Budapest run by L. Eötvös University. Apart from teaching youngsters she is active in mentoring and educating teachers in a teachers’ association and occasionally at university. She is also the editor of several teaching materials. She has been active in developing new ways of teaching Hungarian. For years she was responsible for the national board of the European Youth Parliament. She is a true Budapest dweller: born, brought up, and has been living in downtown in historic buildings.

Anna Gács is a critic and translator. She studied literature and art theory. Her research interests include contemporary literature, digitalisation and literary culture, literary and media theory, and contemporary autobiographic culture. She is an associate professor at the Institute for Art Theory and Media Studies, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest. In 1999-2000 she was the Hungarian lector at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College of London. From 2015 to 2018 she was the president of Szépírók Társasága (Hungarian Society of Writers, Critics and Literary Translators). In 2015 she won the Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.